Hamouz, P., Hamouzová, K., Novotná K.
Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha-1), pinoxaden (30 g ha-1), fluroxypyr (175 g ha-1), and clopyralid (120 g ha-1). Water (250 l ha-1) or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha-1) was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934).
weed control; herbicides; phytotoxicity; cereals; yield loss